Adult 18 on linesax

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Caffeine has a multitude of behavioral and physiological effects in both the body and the brain.Caffeine can cause a rise in systolic blood pressure (Daniels, Molé, Shaffrath, & Stebbins, 1998) and locomotor activity (Holtzman, 1983).Interestingly, the number of caffeine consumers who are adolescents has been increasing the fastest.Over the past 30 years the number of adolescent caffeine consumers has grown 70% (Harnack, Stang, & Story, 1999).(Back to top) Abstract Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world.Although adolescents are the most rapidly increasing group of caffeine consumers, few studies have been done on the effects of caffeine on the still-developing adolescent brain.

Caffeine is a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, meaning it blocks the actions of adenosine on neurons.A1 receptors present throughout the brain but are most highly expressed in the hippocampus and the cortex (Fredholm et al., 1999).A2A receptors are highly expressed in the nucleus accumbens and striatum (Rosin, Robeva, Woodard, Guyenet, & Linden, 1998).Adenosine has various modulatory effects in the brain, especially on the release of other neurotransmitters. So, when an antagonist such as caffeine is applied, the inhibition is stopped and brain activity increases (Fredholm et al., 1999).This process is fundamentally what makes caffeine a stimulant.m RNA encodes the Fos protein that dimerizes with the Jun protein to form the AP-1 complex (Chiu et al., 1988).

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