; also spelled Charedi, plural Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.
Its members are often referred to as strictly Orthodox or ultra-Orthodox in English.
Supporters of the Haskalah held that Judaism must change in keeping with the social changes around them.
Other Jews insisted on strict adherence to halakha (Jewish law and custom).
However, some communities refused to join either of the groups calling themselves Status Quo.
He explained that the Agudas Israel community would cooperate with the Vaad Leumi and the National Jewish Council in matters pertaining to the municipality, but sought to protect its religious convictions independently.
The community petitioned the Permanent Mandates Commission of the League of Nations on this issue.
In contrast to Modern Orthodox Judaism, which hastened to embrace modernity, the approach of the Haredim was to maintain a steadfast adherence both to Jewish Law and custom by segregating themselves from modern society.
Haredi communities are primarily found in Israel, North America, and Western Europe.
In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (including areas traditionally considered Lithuanian), Jews true to traditional values gathered under the banner of Agudas Shlumei Emunei Yisroel.